Ankara is the capital city of the Turkish Republic and a very ancient Turkish city situated at the middle of Anatolia. It became home to Hattis, Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Romans, Turkish Seljuks, Turkish Ottomans. After fall of the Ottoman Empire, Ankara regained importance during the War of Independence and became the symbol of Turkish war of Independence. Ankara has been the capital of Republic of Turkey since 13th October,1923.
Population cencus in 2011 shows that Ankara has a population of 5 million.
Ankara is the center of the state-owned and private Turkish defence and aerospace companies, where the industrial plants and headquarters of the Turkish Aerospace Industries, MKE, Aselsan, Havelsan, Roketsan, FNSS, Nurol Makina, and numerous other firms are located.
A large percentage of the employment in Ankara is provided by the state institutions; such as the ministries, undersecretariats, and other administrative bodies of the Turkish government. There are also many foreign citizens working as diplomats or clerks in the embassies of their respective countries.
Ankara has many parks and open spaces mainly established in the early years of the Republic and well maintained and expanded thereafter. The most important of these parks are: Gençlik Parkı (houses an amusement park with a large pond for rowing), the Botanical Garden, Seğmenler Park, Anayasa Park, Kuğulu Park (famous for the swans received as a gift from the Chinese government), Abdi İpekçi Park, Güven Park, Kurtuluş Park, Altınpark (also a prominent exposition/fair area), Harikalar Diyarı (claimed to be Biggest Park of Europe inside city borders) and Göksu Park. Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo (Atatürk Orman Çiftliği) is an expansive recreational farming area which houses a zoo, several small agricultural farms, greenhouses, restaurants, a dairy farm and a brewery.
Foreign visitors to Ankara usually like to visit the old shops in Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu (Weavers' Road) near Ulus, where myriad things ranging from traditional fabrics, hand-woven carpets and leather products can be found at bargain prices. Bakırcılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Coppersmiths) is particularly popular, and many interesting items, not just of copper, can be found here like jewelry, carpets, costumes, antiques and embroidery. Up the hill to the castle gate, there are many shops selling a huge and fresh collection of spices, dried fruits, nuts, and other produce.
In Ankara several modern, suburbia-style developments and mini-cities began to rise along the western highway, also known as the Eskişehir Road. The Armada and CEPA malls on the highway, the Galleria in Ümitköy, and a huge mall, Real in Bilkent Center, offer North American and European style shopping opportunities (these places can be reached through the Eskişehir Highway.) There is also the newly expanded Ankamall at the outskirts, on the Istanbul Highway, which houses most of the well-known international brands. This mall is the largest throughout the Ankara region. And one of the newest, biggest and most popular shopping mall in Oran area is Panora. Transportation is quite easy to malls in Ankara, you can use either busses or dolmuş; The Great Municipality of Ankara recently announced a web and mobile phone app, which shows you the number of busses and their routes. You can find out the web version from here: http://www.ego.gov.tr/mobil/web/ulasimbilgisistemi.html
If you have an Android, IOS or a Windows based mobile phone you can find download links for the app from here: http://www.ego.gov.tr/mobil/
Esenboğa International Airport, located in the north-east of the city, is Ankara's main airport. Ankara Intercity Bus Terminal (Turkish: Ankara Şehirlerarası Terminal İşletmesi, AŞTİ) is an important part of the bus network which covers every neighbourhood in the city.
The Ankara Central Station is a major rail hub in Turkey. The Turkish State Railways operates passenger train service from Ankara to other major cities, such as: İstanbul, Eskişehir, Balıkesir, Kütahya, İzmir, Kayseri, Adana, Kars, Malatya, Diyarbakır, Karabük, Zonguldak and Sivas.
Ankara is currently served by suburban rail and two subway lines with about 300,000 total daily commuters, and three additional subway lines are under construction.
Ankara has a continental climate with cold snowy winters due to its altitude and inland location, and hot, dry summers. Spring and autumn are generally mild, but during both seasons sudden hot and cold spells frequently occur in the region. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Because of Ankara’s high altitude and its dry summers, night temperatures in summer months are not so high. Ankara’s annual average precipitation is fairly low at 415 mm (16 in), nevertheless rains fall during the whole year. The monthly mean temperature ranges from -0.3 °C (31.46 °F) in January to 23.6 °C (74.48 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 11.7 °C (53.1 °F). Average highest temperature is measured generally in July and August with 30.3 °C (86.54 °F) and the average lowest temperature is measured generally in January and February with -3 °C (26.6 °F).